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Important Literator Of Madhya Pradesh And Their Literature

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 (Unit 1  Topic 6)   

Mppsc prelims 2020-2021- 2022          

Madhya Pradesh has great literature heritage since ancient India the literator of Madhya Pradesh can be categorised in following four category

1. Ancient Literator.

2. Mediaeval Literator.

3. Morden Literator.

4. Folk Literator.

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Discription

Ancient Literator – Kalidas, Bharthari, Bhavbhuti, Banbhatt.

Kalidas

Kalidas was a great ancient poet of Sanskrit . He is famous worldwide for his dramas and other literary work. He has been provided with the title of “Kavi kulguru”and “Kavi Shiromani”.

Notable facts kalidas

  • He is also known as Shakespeare of India.
  • He was one of the nine jewels in the court of Ujjain ruler Chandragupta II Vikramaditya.
  • His wife was vidyotma.

Total creation — 41 out of  which 7 are prominent – Two epic,2 Near epic , & 3 Dramas.

Epic – Raghuvansham and Kumar sambhavam (Trick to remember – RK)

# raghuvansham describes about 28 Suryavanshi rulers while kumarasambhavam describes about Marriage of lord  Shiv and Parvati marriage and birth of Kartikeya. [Vimp.]

Near epic :- Ritu Saharam and Meghdutam

  • कालिदास ने रितु सहारा में प्रेमी और प्रेमिका की ऋतुओं के अनुसार मन:स्थिति का विवरण प्रस्तुत किया है।
  • मेघदूतम में कुबेर द्वारा निष्कासित यक्ष जो मध्य प्रदेश के राम गिरी पर्वत पर रहने लगता है उसकी प्रेमिका यक्षिणी और यक्ष के मध्य बादलों के माध्यम से संदेश का प्रेषण व्यक्त किया गया है जिसके अंतर्गत मेघदूतम में अमरकंटक का भी वर्णन प्राप्त होता है।
  • ( क्योंकि उस दौर में व्हाट्सएप की सुविधा नहीं थी तो प्रेमी प्रेमिका बादलों के माध्यम से ही आपसी संचार स्थापित कर रहे थे।☺️)

Drama 

1.  Abhigyan Shakuntalam :- In this drama the love story of Dushyant and Shakuntala is described by Kalidas.

  • For this drama he is known as Shakespeare of India.
  • Mp govt established Kalidas award in 1980.
  • And Kalidas academy is in Ujjain.

2.Vikramovarshiyam :-  The love story of Urvashi and Vikram.

3.Malavikagnimitram

  • In this drama Kalidas described the love story of sunga ruler Agnimitra and his lover (premika) Malvika. – The capital of shunga rulers was Vidisha (mp) that time.

Bharthari

  • He was a elder brother of Ujjain ruler Vikramaditya.
  • creations – Shringar shatak, Vairagya shatak, Niti shatak.
  • Bharthari caves are in Ujjain.

Bhavbhuti

  • He was a great poet of Sanskrit after Kalidas, another name of him was “Shri kanth”.
  • Creations — Malti Madhav, Mahavir Charitra, Uttar Ram Charitra.

Ban Bhatt

  • He was in the court of Harshvardhan ruler of Kannauj.
  • Creations –  Harsh Charitra, Kadambari and Mukut tandhiktak.

 

Mediaeval Literator – Keshav Das, Padmakar, &  Bhushan

Keshav Das

  • Birth – 1555 in Orchha (Nimari – MP)
  • Patronised by – Orchha ruler Inderjeet Singh.
  • Keshav is considered as first poet and Aacharya of Ritikal.
  • Creations – Ramchandrika, Kavi Priya, Rasik Priya, Jahangir jas Chandrika, Nakh Shikh, Ratan bavari Vigyan Geeta.

Padmakar 

  • Birth – Sagar in 1773
  • He was also a great poet of ritikal.
  • Creations – Jagat Vinod, Ganga Lahari, Prabodh pachasa, Ram rasayan, Alijah prakash.
  • Jagat Vinod was written for Jagat Singh the King of Jaipur.

Bhushan 

  • Birth – Kanpur (up)
  • He was in the court of Shivaji,Aurangzeb, and Bundela ruler Chhatrasal
  • Creations/Literature – Chhatrasal dashak, Shiva bhooshan, Shiva bavani, Bhushan Ullas, Bhushan hazara, Dushan Ullas.

Modern Literator of Madhya pradesh

Makhanlal Chaturvedi, Balkrishna Sharma ‘Naveen’, Subhadra Kumari Chauhan, Gajanan Madhav ‘Muktibodh’, Bhawani Prasad mishra, Hari Shankar parsai, Sharad Joshi, Mulla Ramuzi.

Makhanlal Chaturvedi 

  • Birth – April 4 1889 in (Babai Hoshangabad)
  • Death – January 30 1968(Khandwa)
  • Publications (News papers)  – Pratap, Prabha(Published from Kanpur), Karamveer (Published From Jabalpur)
  • He was awarded with  Padma vibhushan however in 1968. He surrendered it due to the difference with the government over  constitutional status of Hindi.
  • He is famous as ek Bhartiya Aatma.
  • He was arrested during non cooperation movement in 1921 when he was in Bilaspur jail he has written Pushp ki Abhilasha.
  • Creations
  • Poetry – Him kiritani, Him tarangini, Mata, Yug Charan, samarpan, Venu le Gunje Dhara,Bijuri Kajal Aaj Rahi,Maran Jwar,Dumra Valay.
  • Essay:- sahitya Devta Amir irade – Garib irade, panv-panv.
  • Drama :-  Krishnarjuna yuddh.
  • Story :- Kala ka Anuvad.
  • Memoirs – Samay ke panv.
  • Oration/speech collection – Chintak ki lachari.
  • Prose – Rango ki boli.

Balkrishna Sharma ‘Naveen’

  • Birth – Shajapur (1887)
  • Death – 1960
  • Creations
  • Epic – Urmila (1957)
  • Near epic – Pranarpan
  • Poetry – Kumkum, kwasi, Rashmi Rekha, Aplak.

Subhadra Kumari Chauhan

  •  Birth – 1904 Allahabad (Prayagraj)
  •  Death – 1948 in a road accident

Facts

  • She was married to Thakur Lakshman Singh of Khandwa.
  • She has participated in Jhanda Satyagraha 1923.
  • She was a member of state legislature of Madhya Pradesh.
  • She has published Karamveer along with Makhanlal Chaturvedi.

Creations 

  • Poetry — Mukul ,Tridhara
  • Story — Unmadini, Bikhre Moti, Sidhe sadhe Chitra.
  • Other – Jhansi ki Rani, Veeron ka kaisa Ho Vasant, Sabha ke Khel, Jallianwala Bagh mein Basant, veero ka kaisa Ho Basant.

Gajanan Madhav ‘muktibodh’ 

  • Birth — 1917 Sheopur (mp)
  • Creations
  • Poetry :- Chand ka muh tedha hai, Bhuri Bhuri Khak Dhul.
  • Story :– Kath ka Sapna, Satah se uthata Aadmi.
  • Literary critic
  • Kamayni : Ek Punarvichar
  • Ek Sahityik Ki Diary
  •  Fiction —  vipatra.
  • He was influenced by Marxism and Leo Tolstoy.

Bhawani Prasad Mishra

  • Birth — 1913 Hoshangabad
  • Death – 1972
  • Creation
  • Epic –  Gandhi panchshati, Near Epic – Kal jayee
  • other :-  Geet farosh, Satpura ke jungle, Buni Hui rassi(For this he received sahitya Academy Award).
  • He was greatly influenced by Gandhian ideology.
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Hari Shankar parsai 

  • Birth — 1924 Village -Jamani (Hoshangabad)

Important Facts 

  • He published Vasudha & Prahri Patrika from Jabalpur.
  • He was a great satirist of Hindi & was awarded with padma shree,sahitya Academy award and Shikhar samman of Madhya Pradesh.

Creations 

  • Novel :- rani nagfani ki kahani tat Ki Khoj
  • Essay :– Bhoot ke pav  piche, Tab Ki baat aur thi,Pag dandiyon ka jamana, Beimani ki parat, Sadachar ka tabeez, shikayat mujhe bhi hai.
  • Story :- Hanste Hai rote hai, Jaise unke din phire
  • Satire :– Vaishnav ki fislan, bolati rekhayen, Thithurta hua ganatantra ,Viklang Shraddha ka Daur ,Teen sayane, Niththalo ki diary.

Sharad Joshi

  • Birth — 1931 Ujjain
  • Creations :- Jeep per sawar illiya, Rha kinare baith,Fir kisi bahane, Dusri satah Pichhle Dino, Yathasambhav, Andhon ka haathi ,Ek tha gadha, Mai  Aur Keval Mai Parikrama, Tilism.

Mulla Ramuzi 

  • Birth – BHOPAL
  • He was inventor of “Gulabi Urdu” style of writing.
  • Madhya Pradesh Urdu Academy is named after him.
  • Creations:- Aurat Jaat, Jindagi,Lathi aur Bhais, Shaadi, Jung , Gulabi Urdu, Galib Azam, Angoora.

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