Election Commission of India
- It is given in part 15 and Article 324 of Indian Constitution.
- Election Commission is An autonomous constitutional authority.
- This body administers election of Lok Sabha,Rajya Sabha,State legislative assembly in India and election of President & Vice President of India.
- Its headquarter is in New Delhi Nirvachan Sadan.
- It is established in 25th January 1950.
Note:- Since 2011 – 25 January celebrated as national voters day.
- Original it is one member body but after 1 October 1993 It is permanent 3 member body.
- 1 chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioner (1 ± 2).
- Election Commissioner is appointed by president tenure 6 year or 65 age.
- The status of election commissioner is same as judge of Supreme Court
- chief election commissioner removed through a process of removal similar to judge of Supreme court, by parliament that is 2/3 rd majority present and voting and supported by more than 50 percent of total strength of the house.
- By 61st Constitutional Amendment 1989 voting age 18 from 21 it is in article 326 of Indian Constitution.
Important committees related to election reforms
- Tarkunde committee 1974 – 75 recommended nomination amount and age reduction.
- Dinesh Goswami Committee 1990 1991 recommended EVM.
- Bohra committee 1993.
- Indrajit Gupta committee 1998 – 1999.
- Vivek Tankha committee.
- K Samantham committee.
- First chief Election Commissioner was Sukumar Sen.
- First lady chief Election Commissioner VS Rama Devi.
- Nota was introduced in 2013.
- VVPAT stands for voter verified paper audit trail.
- TN seshan ( 10 th Election Commissioner) issued voter ID cards And got Raman Magsaysay Award in 1996 for same.
- The chemical in voting ink is Silver Nitrate first time used in 1969 Mysore Karnataka election.
State Election Commission
- Conduct election of Panchayat &
- Refrence of SEC for Panchayat is given in article 243k of Indian Constitution.
- Refrence of SEC for Municipalities is given name 243ZA of Indian Constitution They were mentioned After 73rd and 74th amendment of Indian Constitution in 1993.
Madhya Pradesh Election Commission
- Headquarter Bhopal established in 15 February 1994 by the notification of state government.
- State level chief election commissioner is appointed by Governor of state.
- First State Election Commissioner was N.B.Lohani.
- Motto :- Every vote priceless every local body significance.
- Chunav app is developed by Madhya Pradesh Election Commission.
UPSC – Union Public Service Commission
- It is a constitutional body.
- Given in article 315- 323 Part 14 of Indian constitution.
- Work :- premier Central recruiting agency of group A and B.
History of UPSC
- 1793 civil services reform by lord Cornwallis ( Lord Cornwallis father of civil services in India).
- 1833 civil services exams are open competition exam (Dalhousie) & in 1853 started open competition exam.
- SN Tagore was first Indian to pass civil Services Exam in1864.
- 1923 Lee Commission Royal Commission recommended to establish Central Public Service Commission.
- Central Public Service Commission established in 1st October 1926 first head sir Ross Barker.
- Federal Public Service Commission and state public service commission established in 1937 by Government of India Act 1935.
- Finally after independence UPSC Union Public Service Commission formed in 26 January
- It is Under PMO, Ministry of personnel public grievance and pension,Under this ministry department of personnel training[DOPT] control and supervise UPSC SSC CBI CVC.
- Tenure of UPSC head 6 year and 65 age whichever is earlier under article 316( number of member or not fixed,It is up to president).
- Appointed by president.
- Removal under article 317 by president (ground of proved misbehaviour is investigated by Supreme Court).
- Commission related to UPSC :- Kothari Commission 1976,Satish Chandra Commission 1989,Hota Commission 2004.
- Article 312 creation of all India services.
- Article 320 Duty of upsc.
- Initiative by UPSC (SAMPERA) screening and mechanised processing of examination and recruitment applications.
- In 1922 first time exam done in India (Allahabad).
- In 1963 IFoS ( Indian forest services) create all India services Act 1951 and into force in 1966.
- 21st April civil services day.
- Civil servants are called Steel frame of India’ by First Deputy PM Vallabh Bhai Patel.
This article is written by Ms Poorva Tamrakar.