National And Regional Constitutional Bodies

Election Commission of India

  • It is given in part 15 and Article 324 of Indian Constitution.
  • Election Commission is An autonomous constitutional authority.
  • This body administers election of Lok Sabha,Rajya Sabha,State legislative assembly in India and election of President & Vice President of India.
  • Its headquarter is in New Delhi Nirvachan Sadan.
  • It is established in 25th January 1950.

Note:- Since 2011 – 25 January celebrated as national voters day.

  • Original it is one member body but after 1 October 1993 It is permanent 3 member body.
  • 1 chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioner (1 ± 2).
  • Election Commissioner is appointed by president tenure 6 year or 65 age.
  • The status of election commissioner is same as judge of Supreme Court
  • chief election commissioner removed through a process of removal similar to judge of Supreme court, by parliament that is 2/3 rd majority  present and voting and supported by more than 50 percent of total strength of the house.
  • By 61st Constitutional Amendment 1989 voting age 18 from 21 it is in article 326 of Indian Constitution.

Important committees related to election reforms

  1. Tarkunde committee 1974 – 75 recommended nomination amount and age reduction.
  2. Dinesh Goswami Committee 1990 1991 recommended EVM.
  3. Bohra committee 1993.
  4. Indrajit Gupta committee 1998 – 1999.
  5. Vivek Tankha committee.
  6. K Samantham committee.

 Facts :-

  • First chief Election Commissioner was Sukumar Sen.
  • First lady chief Election Commissioner  VS Rama Devi.
  • Nota was introduced in 2013.
  • VVPAT stands for voter verified paper audit trail.
  • TN seshan ( 10 th Election Commissioner) issued voter ID cards And got Raman Magsaysay Award in 1996 for same.
  • The chemical in voting ink is Silver Nitrate first time used in 1969 Mysore Karnataka election.

State Election Commission

  • Conduct election of Panchayat &
  • Refrence of SEC for Panchayat is given in article 243k  of Indian Constitution.
  • Refrence of SEC for Municipalities is given name 243ZA of Indian Constitution They were mentioned After 73rd and 74th amendment of Indian Constitution in 1993.

Madhya Pradesh Election Commission

  • Headquarter Bhopal established in 15 February 1994 by the notification of state government.
  • State level chief election commissioner is appointed by Governor of state.
  • First State Election Commissioner was N.B.Lohani.
  • Motto :- Every vote   priceless every local body significance.
  • Chunav app is developed by Madhya Pradesh  Election Commission.

UPSC – Union Public Service Commission

  • It is a constitutional body.
  • Given in article 315- 323 Part 14  of Indian constitution.
  • Work :- premier Central recruiting agency of group A and B.

History of UPSC

  • 1793 civil services reform by lord Cornwallis ( Lord Cornwallis  father of civil services in India).
  • 1833 civil services exams are open competition exam (Dalhousie) & in 1853 started open  competition exam.
  • SN Tagore was first Indian to pass  civil Services Exam in1864.
  • 1923 Lee Commission Royal Commission recommended to establish  Central Public Service Commission.
  • Central Public Service Commission  established in 1st October 1926 first head sir Ross Barker.
  • Federal Public Service Commission and state public service commission established in 1937 by  Government of India Act 1935.
  • Finally after independence UPSC Union Public Service Commission  formed in 26 January
  • It is Under PMO, Ministry of personnel public grievance and pension,Under this ministry department of personnel training[DOPT] control and supervise UPSC SSC CBI CVC.
  • Tenure of UPSC head 6 year and 65 age whichever is earlier  under article 316( number of member or not fixed,It is up to president).
  • Appointed by president.
  • Removal under  article 317 by president (ground of proved misbehaviour is investigated by Supreme Court).
  • Commission related to UPSC :- Kothari Commission 1976,Satish Chandra Commission 1989,Hota Commission 2004.


  • Article 312 creation of all India services.
  • Article 320 Duty of upsc.
  • Initiative by UPSC (SAMPERA) screening and mechanised processing of examination and  recruitment applications.
  • In 1922 first time exam done in India  (Allahabad).
  • In 1963 IFoS ( Indian forest services) create  all India services Act 1951 and into force in 1966.
  • 21st April civil services day.
  • Civil servants are called Steel frame of India’ by First Deputy PM Vallabh Bhai Patel.

This article is written by Ms Poorva Tamrakar.

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