Important Indian Scientific Research Institutions And Their Achievements
Agharkar Research Institute, Pune
- The Institute, founded in 1946 as the Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science Research Institute, was renamed in 1992 as the Agharkar Research Institute (ARI) in honour and memory of the Founder Director, the late Professor Dr. Shankar Purushottam Agharkar.
- The ARI is an autonomous research institution fully funded by the Department of science and Technology (DST) government of India, since 1966. It operates under the overall umbrella of the Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science (MACS).
- The institute is committed to the promotion of science and technology with emphasis on high standards of research and development activities for the benefit of human kind and the nation.
- The current research activities encompass biological sciences and focus on three broad areas.
- Animal Sciences
- Microbial Sciences
- Plant Sciences
- The ARI is also a main research centre under three All India co-ordinated research projects of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR):Wheat breeding, Soybean breeding and grape breeding. An agricultural farm located at Hol, near Baramati, about 80 km from Pune, conducts experiments on crop plants and for multiplication of seed of improved varieties.
- The ARI has a distinguished faculty, modern infra-structural facilities, well equipped laboratories, a guest house and student’s hostel. It is affiliated to the University of Pune and to the Mahatma Phule Agricultural University (MPAU), Rahuri, District Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, for postgraduate research (M.Sc and Ph.D) in biological sciences.A number of research schemes , funded by Central funding agencies are being operated. The ARI accepts consultancy, sponsored research projects and technology transfer programmes from public and private undertakings.
Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational-Sciences, Nanital
- The 50-year old State Observatory at Nainital was reincarnated on 22nd March 2004 as ARIES, an acronym given for Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational-SciencES, an autonomous institute under the Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India.
- Historically,The Observatory came into existence at Varanasi on 20th April, 1954.
- The Observatory was later moved from the dust and haze of the plains to more transparent skies of Nainital in 1955, and to its present location in 1961 at an altitude of 1951m at Manora peak, a few km south of the Nainital town.
Areas of Research
- Solar Astronomy and Solar System: Sun, Solar activity, comets, asteroids, and
- Stellar Astronomy: Stars, star clusters, stellar variability, pulsation, ages of the stars and their spectral
- Interstellar Matter: Gas (atoms and molecules) and dust between the stars and in the interstellar
- Xray Astronomy: Xray emitting binary
- Extragalactic Astronomy: Nearby galaxies, Optical follow up of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) and Supernova, Active galaxies, Quasar luminosity
- Atmospheric Sciences: Aerosols – characterization and thermal budget, Mesophase and thermosphere dynamics, Coupling processes between different atmospheric
Bose Institute, Kolkata
- Bose Institute, now Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose founded a leading organisation of the nation, in 1917 with an intention for the advancement of science and diffusion of knowledge.
- The Institute is in the service of the nation for the last 75 years through its pursuit of advancement of knowledge in science and technology and by producing efficient and skilled scientific manpower that the country needs for its development.
- The institute caters to this need through six departments (Physics, Chemistry, Botany, Microbiology, Biochemistry and Biophysics ), two sections (Plant Molecular Cellular Genetics and Animal Physiology ), and through other service centers like RSIC, DIC, Library, Workshop etc.
Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences, Bangalore
- The Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences (CeNS) is an autonomous research institute under Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India.
- DST provides core support to the Centre in the form of a grant-in-aid for conducting basic and applied research in nano and soft matter sciences. CeNS is located at Jalahalli, Bengaluru.
- The Centre is engaged in materials research at all relevant length scales. Specifically, the current activities are focussed on a variety of metal and semiconductor nanostructures, liquid crystals, gels, membranes and hybrid materials. It has close interactions with many Institutions and Industry, in India and abroad.
- The Centre was established in 1991 by an eminent liquid crystal scientist, Prof. S. Chandrasekhar, FRS. It was then known as Centre for Liquid Crystal Research, a registered scientific society in Karnataka with the objective to build a centre of excellence in line with the international trend those days on liquid crystal materials and devices.
- In 1995, it became an autonomous institute under the Department of Electronics (DOE), Government of India and in 2003, was brought under DST.
- Subsequently in the year 2010, the name was changed to Centre for Soft Matter Research. Recently in 2014, the Centre has further widened the scope of research activities to embrace nanoscience and technology and is now known as Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences (CeNS). It is being mentored by Nano-Mission of the Government of India.
Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore
- The Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research was established in 1989 by the Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, to commemorate the centenary (1989) of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru with the main objective of promoting scientific research at the highest level in frontier and interdisciplinary areas of science and Engineering.
- The Centre is registered as a Society under the Karnataka Societies Registration Act and is an Autonomous National Institution.
- As envisaged at the time of its founding, the Centre maintains close links with the Indian Institute of Science (IISC).
- The Centre has its main campus in Jakkur on the Bangalore – Hyderabad highway, about 11 km from the IISc campus. This is on a 22 acre plot gifted by the Govt. of Karnataka, and has become operational from July1994. The campus was dedicated to the Nation in March 1995 by Shri K. R. Narayanan, Vice-President of India.
Raman Research Institute, Bangalore
- The Raman Research Institute was founded by Nobel laureate Sir C.V.Raman in 1948 with funds from private sources.
- The main activity of the institute was basic research in selected areas of physics which were of particular interest to Prof.Raman.
- The institute owes its origin to action of government of Mysore in gifting to the Indian Academy of Sciences a plot of land in Bangalore in December 1934. In the year 1956, Prof. Raman made an irrevocable gift to the Indian Academy of Sciences, of various movable and immovable properties for the use and the benefit of the Raman Research Institute.
- After Prof. Raman’s death in November, 1970, The Indian Academy of Sciences created in July 1971 a public charitable educational trust by the name Raman Research Institute Trust (RRI Trust). The Academy transferred to the trust the lands,buildings, deposits, securities, bank deposits, moneys, laboratories, instruments and other movable and immovable properties held by it for the purpose of RRI. One of the main objectives of the RRI Trust is principally to maintain, conduct and sustain the Raman Research Institute.
- The institute was reorganized in 1972 and started receiving funds from the Department of Science and Technology of the Government of India. The institute is administered by a Governing Council.
- Currently, the main areas of research are Astronomy and Astrophysics, Liquid Crystals, Theoretical Physics and Optics.
Vigyan Prasar, New Delhi
- Vigyan Prasar (VP) is an autonomous organization under the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India.
- The principal objective of VP is to serve India’s science popularization agenda. This is achieved through several strategically important two – way stakeholder specific approaches to communicate about principles and practice of science and technology and implications for development and quality of life. Science popularization, therefore, serves as a robust knowledge led tool to fulfill three mutually reinforcing public policy objectives –
- The first is to create and foster a well-informed citizenry. This is with special emphasis on developments in science and technology and the open- endedness and continual evolution of science and related knowledge This approach creates the opportunity to assist national missions, duly highlighting dimensions of science and technology. Information clearinghouse functions and secretarial roles are equally important in this context.
- The second is about building capacities to communicate. This is through inroads into formal and non – formal teach and learn systems including education and other community-centered interventions across thrust areas and regions of the country. This is expected to help reach the unreached through concerted networking at the local
- The third objective is implicit in the two already It is about engagement that follows knowledge enrichment. This is a non – linear attribute of science communication; determined by the interplay of regulations, ease of access to alternatives, capacities to use them, and the milieu of equity and justice to exert rights. It is important to take note of this facet of science communication so that popularization efforts and communicators are not trivialized. sets the context for knowledge-centered engagement.