Communicable Diseases & Their Prevention

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Communicable Diseases & Their Prevention

Mppsc Mains Mains Gs Paper 3 Unit 3

Health :- According to WHO “Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely absence of disease or infirmity.

Diseases :- It is malfunctioning process related to a certain part of the whole body in which the normal functions are disturbed or damaged.


1.      Definations




2.      Causative




3.      Agents


4.      Inheritance factor



5.      Type of diseases

    Communicable Diseases

Disease spread from one to another person through water, air, etc,.


Pathogens & vectors




Virus & bacteria


Cannot be inheritance




Non-communicable Diseases

Diseases cannot be transmitted from one to another person.



Allergies, malnutrition, illness, due to internal factor abnormality in cell etc,.


No agents


Can be inherited from one to another generation.




Example’s of Non-Communicable Diseases

Cardiovascular diseases 

  • Class of diseases that involve hearts & blood vessels.
  • Symptoms :- chest pain, shortness of breathe.
  • Types :- coronary artery diseases, stroke heart failure.
  • Prevention :- healthy eating, exercise, avoiding tobacco smoke, Ltd alcohol intake.


  • It is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of body.
  • Symptoms :- Lump, abnormal bleeding, pralongd cough, unexplained weight loss.
  • Risk Factor :- Tobacco, obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity, excessive alcohol.
  • Treatment :- Radiation therapy, surgery chemotherapy & targeted therapy.


  • It is group of metabolic disorder characterized by a high blood sugar level over long period of time.
  • Symptoms :- Frequent urination, increased thirst & hunger.
  • Risk Factor :- type 1- Family history, type 2- obesity, lack of exercise.
  • Prevention :- maintaining a normal body weight.
  • Eating a healthy diet.
  • High level of physical activity.

Chronic Kidney Diseases

  • [CKD] CKD is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney functions.
  • Chronic kidney diseases
  • Symptoms :- early- none, later-leg swelling, feeling tired vomiting, loss of appetite.
  • Causes :- diabetes, high BP
  • Prevention :- limit alcohol intake, maintain healthy weight, physical exercise, enough sleep.

Chronic Respiratory Diseases

  • Chronic Respiratory Diseases [CRD]  Most common CRD’S are asthma chronic obstructive pulmonary, cystic fibrosis.
  • Symptoms :- cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain.
  • Preventions :- Stop smoking, cover your coughs, wear masks, get vaccinated.

Example’s of Communicable Diseases


  • AIDS refer to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With this condition, the immune system is weakened due to HIV that’s typically gone untreated for many years.
  • Symptoms :- early-flu like illness, later-large lymph nodes, fever weight loss.
  • Risk Factor :- Unprotected sex, medical procedure involving unsterile cutting or piercing, needle sharing.
  • Preventions :- Safe sex, needle exchange programme, male circumcision pre-exposure prophylaxis & past- exposure prophylaxis.
  • Treatment :- Antiretroviral Therapy.


  • Tuberculosis caused by-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Incubation period-vary from 2 to 12 weeks.
  • Symptoms :- Chronic cough, fever, cough with bloody mucus, weight loss.
  • Risk Factor :- HIV/AIDS, Smoking.
  • Prevention :- screening those at high risk, treatment of infected, cover your mouth while coughing or sneezing, vaccination with BCG [Bacillus Calmette Guerin].
  • Treatment :- Use of Antibiotics.


  • Malaria :- Caused by- Plasmodium.
  • Incubation period-7 to 30 days.
  • It is mosquito-borne infectious diseases that affects human & other animals.
  • Symptoms :- fever, vomiting, headache, yellow skin.
  • Most commonly spread by infected female Anopheles mosquito.
  • Five species of plasmodium can infect & spread by Humans. Most severe is P.falciparum whereas P.Vivax, P.ovale & p.malariae are causing mild form of malaria.
  • Preventions – Spray insect repellants an yours exposed skin,use of the mosquito net,keep your home & surroundings clean,
  • Treatment  – As soon as symptoms are seen consult your doctor,you can also take anti-malaria tablets.


  • caused by-salmonella typhi bacteria
  • Incubation period :- 6 to 30 days
  • Symptoms :- fever, abdominal pain, headache, rash.
  • Rick Factor :- poor sanitization, poor hygiene.
  • Preventions :- wash your hand frequently, avoid drinking untreated water, avoid raw fruits & vegetables that you cant peel, choose hot foods.
  • Treatments :- use of antibiotics.


  • caused by-Vibrio Cholerae
  • Incubation period 2 hours 5 days
  • Other name Asiatic cholera, epidemic cholera
  • Symptoms :- watery diarrhea, vomiting, muscle drinking water, poverty
  • Prevention :-  make sure to drink and use safe water for domestic purpose.Wash your hands often with soap,Maintain adequate hygiene,Sewage & feel sludge management.
  • Get immunized with cholera vaccine.
  • Treatment :- oral rehydration therapy, zine supplementation, antibiotics.

Hepatitis :- A, B, C, D, E.

  • It is an inflammation of liver tissues.
  • Caused by :- hepatitis A – Hepato virus A, Hepatitis B – Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C – Hepatitits C virus, Hepatitis D – Hepatitis Delta virus [HDV], Hepatitis E – Hepatitis E virus [HEV].
  • Symptoms
  • Hepatitis A – Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, dark urine, jaundice, abdominal pain, fever.
  • Hepatitis B – Yellowish skin, tiredness, dark urine.
  • Hepatitis C – Initially mild or no symptoms, occasionally fever, yellow skin and dark urine.
  • Hepatitis D – Tiredness, nausea, vomiting.
  • Hepatitis E – Nausea, jaundice.
  •  Incubation Period –  Hepatitis A –  15 to 50 days, Hepatitis B E45 Tu 160 days.
  •  Prevention –
  1. To get the vaccine for hepatitis A and Hepatitis B.
  2.  Don’t share your needle to take drugs.
  3.  Don’t use infected persons personal items.
  4.  Practice good hygiene.
  5.  Use of contraceptives.


  • Caused by entamoeba histolytica
  •  Incubation period 2 to 4 weeks
  •  Symptoms –  bloody diarrhoea, abdominal pain, fever, loss of appetite.
  •  Prevention – 
  1. Thoroughly wash fruits and vegetables before eating. 
  2. Use bottled water or soft drinks.
  3. Avoid eating street foods.
  4. Good hygiene practice.

Influenza /  Flu

  • It is caused by influenza virus.
  • Its incubation period is 1 to 4 days.
  • Symptoms –  fever, running nose, sore throat, muscle pain, headache, coughing, fatigue.
  • There are four types of Influenza virus namely –  influenza virus A, influenza virus B e, influenza virus C, influenza virus D.
  •  Influenza B and C mainly affect human beings, while influenzae D affects cattle and pigs.
  • Prevention –
  1.  Avoid close contact.
  2.  Practice good health habits.
  3.  Clean your hands frequently.
  4.  Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth.
  5.  Stay home when you are sick.


  • Caused by brucella bacteria.
  • Incubation period is usually two to four weeks, however it can be between one week to two months.
  • Symptoms – Fever, Joint and Muscular pain, Fatigue, Weight loss, Stomach pain, Cough.
  • Infection spread from animal to people mostly by unpasteurized dairy products.
  • Prevention – 
  1. Avoid unpasteurized dairy products.
  2. Cook meat thoroughly.
  3. Vaccinate domestic animals.
  4. Wear protective clothing and gloves while handling animals.


  • It is caused by which area wuchereria bancrofti (A type of worm).
  • Eight known filarial worms have human as a definitive host, these are divided into three groups according to the part of body their effects –
  1. Lymphocytic Filariasis –  It is caused by W. bancrofti Brugia malayi & Brugia timori.
  2. Subcutaneous Filariasis – It is caused by loa – loa (eye worm).
  3. Serous cavity  Filariasis – It is caused by Mansonella perstans, Mansonella ozardi.It occupies the serous cavity of the abdomen.
  • Symptoms –  Some patients don’t have any symptoms, however others may have inflammation in lymphatic vessels, body ache, swollen lymph nodes.
  • Prevention – 
  1.  Destruction of breeding sites of vectors.
  2.  Using a bed net while sleeping.
  3.  Applying repellent creams on skin.

Covid-19 /  Coronavirus

  • It is caused by SARS-COV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2).
  • Incubation Period – 2 to 14 days.
  • First known case was identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019.
  • Symptoms – Fever,Cough,Fatigue,Shortness of breath,vomiting,loss of taste & smell.
  • Diagnostic Method – RT-PCR Test,Rapid Antibody Test,CT scan.
  • Prevention
  1. Clean your hands often.
  2. Wear a mask.
  3. Maintain a safe distance from a person who is coughing or sneezing.
  4. Don’t touch your eyes,nose,or mouth.
  5. Cover your nose & mouth while sneezing.
  6. Stay home when you are feeling unwell.
  7. If you have fewer,cough & difficulty in breathing,seek medical attention.
  8. Get vaccinated.
  • Vaccines invented so far – Covishield ( AstraZeneca and Serum Institute of India have developed ),Covaxin (Developed by  Bharat Biotech), Sputnik (Russia).

Swine Flu

  • Also called Pig influenza.
  • It is a human respiratory infection caused by an influenza strain that started in pigs.
  • Virus name H1N1 influenza virus.
  • Incubation period – 2 to 7 days.
  • Symptoms – Fever,Cough,Sore throat,Chills,Weakness,Body Ache.
  • Prevention 
  1. Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth.
  2. Frequent washing of hands with soap or using sanitizers.
  3. Cover your cough and sneezes.
  4. Avoid gathering in public places when Swine Flu is in season.


  • It stands for Severe acute respiratory syndrome.
  • Caused by SARS-COV-1.
  • Incubation period 2 to 7 days.
  • SARS appeared first in 2002 in China.
  • Symptoms – Fever,Dry cough,headache,muscle ache,difficulty in breathing.
  • Prevention
  1. Wash your hands frequently or use sanitizer.
  2. Wear disposable Gloves if touching any infected bodily fluids.
  3. Disinfect surfaces that may have been contaminated.
  4. Wear a surgical mask if visiting any infected person.

Bird Flu

  • Caused by H5N1 Virus.
  • Incubation period 2 to 5 days.
  • Strains of influenza virus that primarily affects birds,but can also infect humans.
  • Symptoms – Cough,Fever,Sore throat,muscle ache,Shortness in breath.
  • Prevention
  1. Practice good hygiene.
  2. Avoid open air markets or contact with live birds and poultry.
  3. Avoid eating raw eggs.

Zika Virus

  • Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes Mosquito.
  • Incubation Period – 3 to 14 days.
  • Symptoms – Fever,Rashes,Headache, Joint Pain,Conjunctivitis,Muscle pain.
  • Prevention
  1. Use insect repellants.
  2. Cover your exposed skin with a full sleeve shirt.
  3. Stay home,and sleep in an air conditioned room.
  4. Avoid non essential travel to areas affected by Zika.

Ebola Virus

  • Caused by Ebola virus.
  • Incubation period – 2 -3 weeks.
  • Symptoms – Fever,Sore throat,muscle pain,headache,diarrhea.
  • Prevention
  1. Don’t touch infected body fluid.
  2. Wash hands often & disinfect raw food.
  3. Avoid direct contact with an infected person.
  4. Visit hospitals in case of severe infection.

This article is written by Vinay Pathak.

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