Climatic Regions of India
The climatic division of India is based upon Trewartha’s scheme, which is a modified form of Koppen’s system and it corresponds with the vegetative, agricultural and geographical regions of India. Main climatic regions of India include:
- Tropical Rain Forest (Am): It is found on the West coastal plain, the Western Ghats and some parts of Assam. It is characterized by high temperature in winter not below 18.2°C; and in summer about 29°C. The average rainfall exceeds 200
- Tropical Savanna (Aw): It is located in peninsular region except the semi – arid zone in the leeside of the It is characterized by long dry weather throughout winter and early summer and high temperature (above 18.2°C). Annual rainfall varies from 76 cm in the west to 150 cm. in the east.
- Tropical Semi-arid Steppe (BS): Prevails in the rain-shadow belt running southward from Central Maharashtra to Tamil Nadu in the leeside of the Sahyadris and Cardamom It is characterized by low rainfall which varies from 38 cm to 80 cm, high temperature between 20°- 30° C.
- Tropical and Sub-Tropical Steppe (BSh): Occurs over Punjab extending to Kutch region. The Thar Desert is in the west and the more humid climate of the Ganga plain and the Peninsula to its East and South respectively.
- Tropical Desert (BWh): The area includes the western parts of Barmer, Jaisalmer and Bikaner district of Rajasthan. A large portion of Kutch Peninsula along with Thar Desert is also included. It is characterized by scanty rainfall (30 average) with few parts receiving 12 cm annual rainfall. Temperature is above 35° C.
- Humid Sub-tropical with Dry Winter (Cwa): The area includes South of the Himalayas, East of the tropical and sub – tropical steppe and north of tropical Savanna. It is characterized by rainfall of 63.5 cm to 254 cm most of which is received during the South West Monsoon
- Mountain Climate (H): The area lies above 6000 metre sea-level. Examples are the Himalayan and Karakoram Temperature decreases with altitude. The Trans – Himalayan region particularly Ladakh has a dry and cold climate – what may be called cold desert. Drought is permanent.