Agriculture in Madhya Pradesh
Mppsc Prelims Unit 3
Area Wise Madhya Pradesh is the second largest state of India, It has 9 % of total land of the country & is primarily an agrarian state where around 72% of state’s population livelihood is based on agriculture.90% of state’s primary sector income comes from agriculture itself.Moreover majority of states agriculture is based on monsoon.
- Agriculture contributes approximately 21% in GSDP.
- The total agriculture land in the state is 147.90 lakh hectare (49% of total area of state).
- Major crop of the state is Soybean which is sown in around 44 lakh hectare land.
- The average agricultural holding in mp is 2.2 hectare.
- The highest agricultural holding is in Harda – 5.6 Hectare.
- The least agricultural holding is in Katni & Neemuch – 1.5 Hectare.
- The overall rank of Madhya Pradesh in food grain production is fourth in the country.
- Madhya Pradesh ranks first in following crops – Soybean,Pulses,Gram,Oilseed.
- Other ranks – Wheat – third , Lentil – second , cotton – fourth , Rice – sixth.
- Crops category – Rabi, Kharif, Zaid.
Major Crops Of Madhya Pradesh
The crops in Madhya Pradesh can be categorised in following manner – Oilseed, pulses, food crops, cash crops, vegetable, fruits, spices.
- Soybean is an important oilseed crop of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh is the country’s largest producer of soyabean (54%) and it is known as Soya state.
- Soybean is the largest source of protein (40-45%).
- It is a kharif crop sown-in black soil.
- The Soybean plant is in Ujjain, while the National Soybean Research Centre is in Indore.
- Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh produces maximum soybean.
- It is an important oilseed crop of Madhya Pradesh after soybean.
- The primary region of mustard in Madhya Pradesh is the Central India plateau and Chambal Valley region.
- District – Bhind, Morena, Gwalior, Sheopur, Shivpuri.
- The central India region is known as Godown of mustard.
- Morena is the largest mustard producing district.
- It is a kharif and Cash crop.
- It is primarily produced in Mandsaur Neemuch Dhaar Khargone districts of Madhya Pradesh.
- Madhya Pradesh is second in lentil production in the country, it produces approximately 28% of total lentil production of the country.
- It is a Rabi crop which is sown along with wheat and gram.
- Khargone is the largest lentil producing district of the state.
Til / Ramtil
- It is primarily produced in Chhatarpur Sidhi Tikamgarh shahdol and Panna.
- Wheat is a very important food crop of Madhya Pradesh.
- Madhya Pradesh ranks third in overall wheat production in the country.
- It is a rabi crop.
- Major wheat producing districts of Sehore, Ashok Nagar, Bina, Guna, Hoshangabad, Harda, Vidisha, Ujjain, Dewas, Indore.
- The Sharbati variety of wheat is world famous and primarily produced in Sehore district.
- Wheat is produced in approximately 50% of the total irrigated land of the state.
- Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh is known as Godown of wheat.
Rice / Paddy
- Before 2000 it was an important crop of Madhya Pradesh & after the formation of Chhattisgarh the production of rice degraded drastically.
- The rice research centre of Madhya Pradesh is in Barwani.
- It is a kharif crop.
- It is primarily produced in Eastern Madhya Pradesh.
- Major districts are Mandla, Dindori, Balaghat, Umaria, Anuppur, Shahdol, Rewa, Sidhi Satna, Katni.
- The highest production is in Balaghat.
- It is the third important food crop of Madhya Pradesh which is Swan in kharif.
- It is primarily produced in Chhindwara Mandsaur Ratlam Neemuch Dhar Jhabua districts of Madhya Pradesh.
- The highest production is in Chhindwara.
- It is the fourth most important crop of Madhya Pradesh.
- It is mostly Swan in kharif season.(It can be sown in both season rabi and kharif).
- The highest producing Districts are Khargone(Maximum), Chhindwara, Betul, Burhanpur, Jhabua, Dhar.
- Gram is an important crop of Madhya Pradesh.
- Madhya Pradesh is the largest producer of gram in India 38%.
- Producing districts – Ujjain( maximum), Vidisha, Sagar, Hoshangabad, Harda, Raisen, Narsinghpur.
- It is a kharif crop.
- Madhya Pradesh first in its production.
- Districts – Narsinghpur( maximum), Hoshangabad, Harda, Sagar, Betul.
Commercial crops / Cash crops
- Sugarcane is the State’s important Cash crop.
- It is primarily produced in Narsinghpur( maximum), Chhindwara, Sehore, Gwalior, Data, Burhanpur, Betul.
- Jaggery and sugar are made from the sugarcane.
- Cotton is primarily produced in the nimar region of Madhya Pradesh.
- Cotton producing districts in Madhya Pradesh are Khargone Khandwa (both are known as Golden districts due to cotton production), Burhanpur, Barwani.
- It is a dried latex obtained from the Opium Poppy plant.
- The opium is primarily produced in Mandsaur and Neemuch district.
- It is used in medicinal preparation, however certain intoxicating substances( drugs) are also made by it.
- Alkaloid factory ( under Ministry of Finance Government of India) is in Neemuch Madhya Pradesh.
- Madhya Pradesh produces around 64% of total opium production.
Marijuana ( Cannabis) / Ganja
- It is produced in Khandwa and Burhanpur district.
- Burhanpur is known as heaven for marijuana takers (Ganjediyo ka Swarg).
- It is extracted from a Cannabis plant.
- The flowers of Cannabis plants are used to make marijuana,while leaves are used to make Bhang, and Hashish (Charas) From its stem.
Note – Opium and Cannabis both are cultivated under strict government control, where the government provides licence to the farmers to cultivate the same.
Some spices are cultivated in Madhya Pradesh Chile,Ginger, Garlic, Coriander.
The maximum production of Garlic is in Khargone and Khandwa district.
- Red chilli producing districts – Khargone,Tikamgarh,Chhatarpur,Dhar.
- Coriander producing districts – Guna,Rajgarh,Mandsaur,Agar malwa.
- Turmeric producing districts – Rewa, Chhatarpur, Sagar,Dhar,Katni.
- Garlic producing districts – Neemuch,Ratlam,Ujjain,Mandsaur,Dhar.
- Ginger producing districts – Tikamgarh, Chhindwara, Chhatarpur,Sagar,Dhar.
The vegetables production in mp is increasing regularly,main vegetables are as follows – Potato,Tomato,Onion,Green Pea,Green Chilly.
- Potato producing districts – Indore,Ujjain,Chhindwara,Sagar,Dewas.
- Tomato producing districts – Shivpuri, Chhindwara,Sagar,Jhabua.
- Onion producing districts – Dewas, Indore,Ujjain,Sagar,Khandwa.
- Green Pea Producing districts – Jabalpur,Ratlam,Chhindwara,Ujjain.
- Green Chilly producing districts – Chhindwara,Khandwa,Jhabua,Rewa.
There are various fruits which are produced by the farmers of madhya pradesh such as Orange,Guava,Mango,Pomegranate & Banana.
Fruits and their producing districts –
- Orange – Agar Malwa,Chhindwara,Rajgarh,Shajapur.
- Guava – Khargone,Sehore,Rewa,Vidisha,Katni.
- Mango – Betul, Anuppur,Katni,Balaghat,Alirajpur.
- Pomegranate – Khargone,Dhar,Agar Malwa,Shajapur,Dewas.
- Banana – Burhanpur,Barwani,Dhar,Dhar,Khargone.
Madhya pradesh has total two Mega Food Parks
- Indus Mega Food Park – Khargone
- Avanti Mega Food Park – Dewas
Madhya Pradesh has total seven Food Parks
- Malanpur – Bhind
- Barodi – Shivpuri
- Maneri – Mandla
- Borgaon – Chhindwara
- Babai – Hoshangabad
- Powarkheda – Hoshangabad
- Nimrani – Khargone
- Jaggakhedi – Mandsaur
- Madhya Pradesh state policy on organic agriculture was formulated in 2011.
- Total agricultural zones in Madhya Pradesh are five.
- Total Agro climatic zone in Madhya Pradesh is 11.
- Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University was established in 1964 in Jabalpur.
- Vijaya Raje Agricultural University was established in 2008 in Gwalior.
- State warehousing Corporation was founded in February 1958 in Bhopal.
- The pesticide manufacturing plant is in Bina.
- Madhya Pradesh has received the Krishi Karman award five times.
- State biodiversity board is headed by the chief minister.
- Agriculture department in Madhya Pradesh is renamed as Farmers Welfare And Agriculture Department.
- Agricultural engineering research centre is in Bhopal.
- Agriculture Engineering College is in Jabalpur.
- Cotton Research Centre is in Khargone.
- Horticulture college is in Mandsaur.
- India’s first organic farming holding is in Indore.
- Dairy State Centre is in Jabalpur.
- The National grapes Research Centre is in Ratlam.
- International Centre for Maize and wheat research is in khamaria Jabalpur.(It is named after Norman Borlaug).
- Khet Talab Yojana started by 22nd May 2006.
- Balram Tal Yojana was started in May 2007. Under this scheme 1 lakh rupees grant is given to build a pond.
- The Suraj Dhara scheme was started in 2000 – 2001, this scheme was associated with pulses and oilseeds crops.
Agricultural zones of Madhya Pradesh :- The farmers welfare and agricultural department of Madhya Pradesh has divided State into five agricultural zone –
- The west black soil region of Malwa – This region includes the district of Ratlam, Neemuch, Mandsaur, Jhabua, Khandwa, Dhar, Harda, Badwani, Dewas, Shajapur, Ujjain, Rajgarh, Khandwa, Khargone and Indore. This region is basically the region of cotton and jwar.
- The North region of wheat and jowar :- This region includes the district of Datia, Bhind, Morena, Gwalior, Sheopur, Guna, Shivpuri, Chhatarpur and Tikamgarh.
- The central region of wheat :- This region includes the district of Hoshangabad, Raisen, Bhopal, Narsinghpur, Vidisha, Sagar and Damoh.
- The region of wheat and rice :- This region includes the district of Panna, Satna, Katni, umaria, Jabalpur.
- Complete Eastern Madhya Pradesh :- Region of rice :- Anuppur, Shahdol, Dindori, Mandala, Rewa, Satna, Sidhi, and Balaghat.